Archives par mot-clé : work employment

Constraints Governing Action by Plant Management: Analysis of Human Resources Management in the Automobile Industry

The study carried out over the last fifteen years or so concerning methods of human resources management in factories within the automobile industry (car manufacturers and suppliers) highlights the spread of the same management practices. In fact, they are, however, different depending on the management of any given factory. Managers on the spot come under pressure from the central management of groups of car manufacturers and suppliers but do have some margin of autonomy. In this analysis of their constraints and their initiatives, theories are examined about domination and the role played by management.

Gorgeu.A, Mathieu.R, Socio-Économie du Travail n°26 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXIX), août 2005, p.1503-1530.

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Temporal Flexibility, and the Employment Relationship

Nowadays, flexibility of work and employment constitutes a strategic management tool. This contribution aims at showing how far flexibility makes sense to individuals and groups, how flexibility practices are justified in discourses and perceived, and how the employment relationship finally faces deep changes. Based on two case studies, the authors underline temporal availability as the main stake of those practices, that contributes to the emergence of a new employment relationship, more individualized, personalized and informal, taking place in a reconfigured spatial and temporal framework.

Taskin.L, Schots.M, Socio-Économie du Travail n°26 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXIX), août 2005, p.1471-1501.

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The Impact of Basic Income on the Propensity to Work: Theoretical Issues and Micro-econometric results

In France, there is much debate about “minimum social benefits”, and basic income is still perceived as too daring a proposal, in particular because it is believed to encourage idleness. How can we predict how individuals would use this unconditional income? As regards low wage earners, we look first at the uncertainties surrounding the economic theory as to the behavioural changes that this could induce. This is followed by an econometric study of answers given in 2000 by a panel of poorly qualified young adults who had recently become employed : this indicates that the payment of a monthly allowance of 2,000 FF (approximately 300 Euros) would not result in a massive withdrawal from work. Integration through employment means more than just receiving a wage, and disconnecting work from income rarely encourages individuals to experiment with other types of social integration.

Gamel.C, Balsan.D, Véro.J, Socio-Économie du Travail n°26 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXIX), août 2005, p.1411-1441.

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Labour Quality Conventions, and Unemployment

This paper intends to emphasize an often neglected aspect of the unemployment process: the role of work assessment related to goods assessment. Attention is focused on the structural unemployment, which is reflected in lasting inequalities connected to job access, and long term unemployment. We try to discover its causes in the ranking of different qualities of work, which are founded on quality conventions. Recommended policies focus on the reconstruction of legitimate agreement, especially about work evaluation, both in firms and on the market.

Eymard-Duvernay.F, Socio-Économie du Travail n°26 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXIX), août 2005, p.1381-1409.

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Client, Employer and Worker: Cartography of a Complex Triangulation

Many studies in the fields of Law, Sociology and Management evoke a questioning of the bond of subordination between employer and workers. This transformation of subordination is often explained by the triangulation of the traditionally bilateral labour relation between employer and workers, due in large part to the intrusion of the client or their representatives in the organizational conditions of work, without necessarily distinguishing between the various types of clients, nor between the reality and the rhetoric of the role and the weight of the client. The objective of this article is to propose a classification of the triangular situations between employer, workers and client based on power concept and to analyse the impacts of client on work conditions and employment relations.

Havard.C, Rorive.B, Sobczak.A, Socio-Économie du Travail n°27 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XL), septembre 2006, p.1229-1258.

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French Labour Market Segmentation and French Labour Market Policies since the Seventies : Connecting Changes

The article analyses how the changes in firm’s practices and public policies since the 1980s shaped the dynamics of labour market segmentation in France. First, considering firm’s human resources practices at the end of the 1990s, on the basis of statistical exploratory analysis, we were able to draw the contours of labour market structure as composed of an upper primary sector, a lower primary sector structured by renewed internal labour markets and a differentiated secondary sector. Second, the analysis of labour market policies puts high unemployment into the picture. Here, we show how public policies first aimed at preserving the 1970s pattern of internal labour markets but were subsequently focused on lowering labour cost and shortening the work-week. Regarding the labour market structure these policies finally yielded more differentiated segments rather than the promotion of transition to good jobs.

Gazier.B, Petit.H, Socio-Économie du Travail n°28 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XLI), juin 2007, p.1027-1056.

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Labour market segmentation in Britain: the decline of occupational labour markets and the spread of ‘entry tournaments’

This paper reviews the changing pattern of labour market segmentation in Britain since the mid-1970s. In the early 1980s, industrial labour markets in Britain, along with Germany, could be characterised as dominated by occupational labour markets for skilled workers compared with the predominance of firm internal labour markets in France and Italy. These provided for structured entry paths into the relevant occupations and jobs. Britain’s position in this picture has changed as a result of the decline of industrial employment and the institutions on which these occupational markets were built. The second part of the article searches for new models whose importance is increasing in Britain. It examines the spread of highly competitive conditions for entry into certain service sector activities, such as the media, and ‘knowledge intensive’ services where employment has been growing rapidly. The paper presents evidence that some of these sectors have come to be characterised by prolonged ‘entry tournaments’. These are driven by ease of entry at the bottom, growth of earnings at the top, and a struggle for access to the higher status, stable, positions within the occupation.

Marsden.D, Socio-Économie du Travail n°28 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XLI), juin 2007, p.965-998.

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Developing segmentation theory: a thirty years perspective

Segmentation theories of the 1970s  made employing organisations the central agents in the shaping of labour market inequality. These theories can be critiqued for offering a very partial and static institutional analysis of labour markets that was also highly American centric.  To remedy these problems three developments were required:  to regard strategies by employers and workers as influenced not only by capital-labour conflicts but also by dynamics of inter-capitalist or inter-worker competition; to introduce supply-side segmentation, including gender, as a factor shaping the creation of  good and bad jobs; and to allow for  the impact of variations in national institutional arrangements on the strategies and practices of employers. In combining segmentation with societal analysis it remains vital to continue to see employers as active agents and not, as in current employment debates, to allow their influence in shaping the national and international employment landscape to remain hidden and unexplored.

Rubery.J, Socio-Économie du Travail n°28 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XLI), juin 2007, p.941-964.

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Preliminary Thoughts on Identity and Segmentation in Primary Sector Labor Markets

This paper argues that a shift is occurring in the labor market structure leading to an increase in the use of social networks based on the criteria that were originally the locus of labor market segmentation in low income jobs: race, sex and ethnicity, but also age, disability and sexual orientation. It thus calls into question the presumption of the earlier literature on labor market segmentation that as one moved up the wage hierarchy, jobs were increasingly allocated through formal institutional structures on the basis of objective credentials, and that the adverse labor market outcomes of minority groups in low wage jobs were connected to excessive reliance upon social networks in the labor market.

Piore.M, Safford.S, Socio-Économie du Travail n°28 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XLI), juin 2007, p.925-940.

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From segmentation to flexibility to segmentation amidst flexibility : the case of the United States

 Labor market segmentation theory, particularly the dual labor market theory, received substantial attention from economists in the United States in the 1970s.  In the 1980s, interest waned due to theoretical and empirical problems within the analysis itself, and the labor market changes emerging from the “search for flexibility” on the part of employers and government policymakers.  Segmentation still remains amidst the, perhaps, more “flexible” labor markets of today.  The political economy of labor market segmentation is still a useful framework for studying crucial issues facing workers in the United States.

Rosenberg.S, Socio-Économie du Travail n°28 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XLI), juin 2007, p.897-924.

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Choosing Agency Work: Under Which Conditions ?

Temporary work appeared in France in the 1950s and developed in an exponential manner. Temporary workers compound instability with relation to work, to career and to employer. However, 20% of temporary employees wish to remain in temporary employment. Why does this minority choose precariousness? The analysis of working and employment conditions of temporary employees highlights a differential management of interim employees. Two types coexist: mass intern employees and individualized interim employees. The interests of companies and professional temporary employees forge a particular employment relationship, which is co-constructed between agency and temper that in turn makes it possible to explain this choice.

Kornig.C, Socio-Économie du Travail n°29 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XLI), décembre 2007, p.1959-1977.

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Time Use, Women Employment and Conventions in Sweden and Japan

Considering the comparative child convention in Japan and Sweden, and in spite of the Swedish gender equality context, it comes out that Swedish women have a relatively heavy domestic time burden which can explain their availability for jobs in the social service sector adapted to their time supply. Consequently, we can detect for both countries, two different mechanisms of social construction of working and non-working time, and we can identify the two gender inequality regimes to which they belong.

Ribault.T, Socio-Économie du Travail n°30 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XLII), janvier 2009, p.145-175.

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Long term expansion of female schooling and recent changes in occupational gender segregation: is there a link ?

This paper focuses on the evolution between 1996 and 2002 of the occupational segregation between men and women, measured by the Karmel and Maclachlan index. The analysis is based on a decomposition method that separates an occupational segregation component inherited from educational segregation from another component related to the labour market. The first objective is to appreciate the part of the decrease in occupational segregation that can be related to the expansion of diplomas in the labour force between the two years. The second objective is to differentiate what, in those evolutions, can be attributed to structural changes in the labour demand and supply, and what can be attributed to changes in the economic agents’ behaviours. Last, it shows the degree of variability of those changes depending on the type of occupation.

Couppié.T, Épiphane.D, Socio-Économie du Travail n°30 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XLII), janvier 2009, p.87-121.

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Unskilled Employees: A Group Neglected by Gender Equality Policies

This paper goes back over the progressive and continuous increase of the “unskilled employees” observed in the French labor market. This analysis is undertaken through the relations between this category and equality policies: Who are the unskilled employees in France? How can the recent growth of this category be explained? What is the place devoted to this category in the recent French gender equality policies?

Gadrey.N, Jany-Catrice.F, Pernod-Lemattre.M, Socio-Économie du Travail n°30 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XLII), janvier 2009, p.57-86.

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Access and career of public servants: the specific case of prosecutors in France

The judiciary system offers a specific example of how careers evolve in the public sector in France. Magistrate can always choose between a career as a prosecutor or as a magistrate. This paper addresses the following issues: on the demand side, what variables do affect this choice, and on the supply side, is it efficient to restrict the choice to one specific career? In order to become a prosecutor rather than a magistrate: is there a specific skill to acquire, and to invest in? This issue is relevant in the French debate where prosecutors and magistrates are hired through the same school and the same rules of careers. We invest this issue through three different data sources. We find that there is no evidence of a specific skill but rather a choice, an exogenous preference linked to age or matrimonial status, or a preference revealed by experience. Thus we find no efficiency argument in favor of segmentation between prosecutors and magistrate.

Audier.F, Bacache.M, Socio-Économie du Travail n°30 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XLII), janvier 2009, p.27-54.

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