Archives par mot-clé : work employment

Numéro AB/33 (Économies et Sociétés 8/2011) – Crisis and Social Models

Special issue – Crisis and Social Models

Contents and Abstracts

FREYSSINET J., Responses of the systems of industrial relations to the economic crisis: The example of six western European economies,  p. 1227.

The economic crisis offers an experience to compare responses of systems of industrial relations in Western Europe according to national specificities of the modes of production of the rules of the employment relationship. Three typical situations are distinguished. They enable to invalidate the hypothesis of a strict path dependency and prove the absence of a one best way response to the crisis. The persistence of the crisis creates an opportunity to implement changes in the rules of the employment relationship which were included for a long time in the social agenda. 

LEFRESNE F., SAUVIAT C., Social models in the USA and in four European countries facing the crisis, p. 1265.

A comparison of the impact of the crisis on the trajectories of social models in the United States and in four European countries –Denmark, Germany, France, Spain– leads us to a twofold diagnosis. First, significant changes, even breaking points, occurred within each national trajectory, under the pressure of norms of flexibility and the containment of public expenditure. A high degree of heterogeneity persists because of the way these norms are implementing and are supported by specific social compromises. Furthermore, the crisis revealed the absence of a “European social model”, clearly differing itself from the US social model.  

BELKACEM R., KORNIG C., The social construction of temporary work: from its emergence in the USA to its institutionalization in France, p. 1301.

The aim of this paper is the study of the historical development of temporary work. Temporary workers agencies (TWA) appear first at the beginning of the last century in the United States and in the United Kingdom. From the years 1940 on, their fast development carried by large companies of temporary work would be based first of all on the secretarial work needs. Introduced in France during the 1950s, its institutionalization (economic, social, and political recognition as a useful activity for the community) has been progressive. 

FRANÇON B., GUERGOAT-LARIVIÈRE M., Poverty policies in the economic crisis: changes and continuity, p. 1329.

This paper proposes an analysis of poverty development in Europe during the recent economic crisis considering policies that have been implemented to fight it. We focus on five countries namely France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK, each of them standing for a social protection model. The rising unemployment that comes along with the economic downturn increases the risk of poverty and challenges European models’ capacity to contain that risk. The joint analysis of pre-crisis situation and of measures implemented in immediate response to the crisis shows that social protection systems that were already at work before the crisis and their relative levels of generosity remain essential in the fight against poverty. Besides, the recent implementation of employment policies centred on “activation” – in spite of that they do not rely on the same principles in all countries – may have had perverse effects on poverty in the context of economic crisis because of their cost-containment goal.

ERHEL C., Labour market policy in Europe: what reactions facing the economic crisis ?, p. 1359.

Before the crisis, labour market policies have undergone several years of reforms, focused on activation, work incentives, and flexicurity. Most European countries share the same trends, partly supported by the European Employment Strategy since 1997, even though important differences between national models remain. The economic downturn in 2007 has led to a very spectacular rise in unemployment in some countries, especially concentrated among low educated and young men. Facing this new context, the reactions of labour market policies seem ambiguous. On the one hand, institutional reforms and in work incentives still follow previous reform trends, especially the activation framework. On the other hand, a large number of countries also develop internal flexibility devices (including partial unemployment), and reinforce unemployment insurance or minimum income policies. These types of policies may have contributed to temper the direct impact of the crisis on labour market trends (especially in continental countries). They also lead to the reintroduction of some old debates (on working time sharing, on the minimum wage), especially in the new member states. Nevertheless, it seems that the turn towards restrictive budgetary policy in the first half of 2010 is compromising these trends, and even endangering last decade’s virtuous models, especially the Danish model.

Book Review

P. DURAN , Les nouvelles dimensions du politique, Relations professionnelles et régulations sociales, L. Duclos, G. Groux et O. Mériaux (dir.), coll. « Droit et Société,Recherches et Travaux, 19 », Paris, L.G.D.J, p. 1389.

Y. CHASSARD, L’emploi en ruptures, B. Gomel, D. Méda et E. Serverin (dir.), coédition de Dalloz, Presses universitaires de Paris Ouest et CEE, p. 1397.

B. REYNÈS, L’entreprise en restructuration, Dynamiques institutionnelles et mobilisations collectives, C. Didry et A. Jobert (dir.), coll. « Économie et Société », Presses universitaires de Rennes, p. 1403.

O. JOIN-LAMBERT, Négocier l’emploi. 50 ans de négociations interprofessionnelles sur l’emploi et la formation, J. Freyssinet, Paris, Éditions Liaisons, p. 1411.

R. BELKACEM, Les agences de la précarité. Journaliers à Chicago, S. Chauvin, Le Seuil, p. 1415.

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On the flexibility of atypical self-employed and the rigidity of official statistical data. The case of Greece

The general point of this article is that the usual conception of flexibility is very problematic for countries like Greece, where the main bulk of flexible employment is found outside or, in the margins, of the wage-earners. The blurring boundaries between the statuses of the wage-earners and the self-employed workers is a typical example of flexibility that is usually ignored by the official statistical data. In order to illustrate this phenomenon, the article uses the notion of « travail parasubordonné », which has its origins in Italy (lavoro parasubordinato). The whole argument is presented in three parts. The first part is devoted to the discussion of the evolution, the advantages and the problems associated with the notion of « travail parasubordonné ». In the second part evidence is presented from a field research on the employment of Greek engineers. The main outcome of the empirical research is that this atypical form of employment is increasing among young graduates. Finally, the third part discusses the question of public policy. The point here is that the power relations between the two contracting parts make redundant policies that aim to transform the atypical self-employed to wage-earners.

Liagouras.G, Socio-Économie du Travail n°23 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXVIII), janvier 2004, p.113-145.

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The exploitation of a natural resource and quality enhancement policy : the sea bass fisher in Brittany

The sustainable management of the natural resource, such as the marine resource, has undergone much research combining biological, economic and social concerns. It is not in the purpose of this paper to study the effectiveness of the various policies which aim at implementing  sustainable exploitation schemes. But, the authors focus on analysing the impact that a quality enhancement programme using labels can have first on fishermen’s incomes, but also on resource level resulting from the changed fishing effort and producer’s fishing strategies, mainly through the development of a new labour-leisure trade-offs. A common Hicksian consumer model underlies the analysis. So, the purpose is to provide an economic interpretation fishermen’s exploitation practices  describing the impact of adopting a collective label in terms of financial benefits, working time and resource preservation.

Charles.E, Boude.J-P, Socio-Économie du Travail n°23 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXVIII), janvier 2004, p.89-112.

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Remuneration with the seniority and merit pay in France: topicality of the theory of the differed payment

Within the framework of the emergence of personnel economics,  the differed payment model is confronted with the evolution of human ressource management in France.  From the assumptions of the differed payment model we show, in particular, that the renunciation of the systematic wage increases with seniority in France is due to the demographic trends and the inefficiency of this mode of remuneration to encourage the employees to provide a high effort level .  In addition, it proves that the principle of the differed payment is more in adequacy with the current merit pay that with systematic remuneration with the seniority whereas this last assumption is usually retained.

Lemistre.P, Socio-Économie du Travail n°23 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXVIII), janvier 2004, p.67-88.

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Professional Cooperation and Qualification, and Accountability regimes

The farming profession, as other professions, is confronted with a crisis of confidence (food scares, environmental concerns…). This present professional crisis corresponds both with an external challenge expressed by the social and public demands and an internal trend of competencies change in front of a new context for innovation. From the case of farming, this paper aims to draw a general framework for the analysis of profession and professional mode of production. The point of departure is a definition of the modes of economic coordination that includes collective governance. Springing from scholar’s works on professions that use convention theory or competences-based approaches, a general model is framed. Conventions of cooperation allow the construction of collective knowledge and the regulation of collectives (communities). Conventions of qualification design the status of professional groups and professions. Professional qualification steams from shared core competences and from and accountability regime corresponding with the professional ethic and code of practices and the public regulation of profession. The professional crisis results from changes in the social forms, or conventions, of qualification and in the accountability régime.

Allaire.G, Socio-Économie du Travail n°23 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXVIII), janvier 2004, p.27-65.

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The new forms of work intensification in manufacturing industries : technological, organizational and economic factors

This article deals with work intensification in manufacturing industry. It shows its extent over the last twenty years and analyses its new forms linked to technological and organizational changes. It examines the relationship between work intensification and the evolution of employment and the role played by the age structure of the workforce. It studies the contribution of work intensification to the increase in labor productivity and explores the relationships being established between forms of work intensification and profitability.

Valeyre.A, Socio-Économie du Travail n°24 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXVIII), novembre 2004, p.1993-2027.

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The deregulation of the funeral market : an institutional innovation

This article analyses the problem of the transfer of the public monopoly to the competitive market on the sector of funeral services. It describes the creation of new rules for the government of the market, through the negotiations between State services and professionals. The main topic concerns the capacity of the professionals to built a collective and autonomous action. The issue is the regulation of the labor market as well as the services/product market.

Boissin.O, Trompette.P, Socio-Économie du Travail n°24 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXVIII), novembre 2004, p.1933-1960.

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The determining factors of work relationship – A qualitative analysis in the domestic waste sector

This paper deals with the many levels and interdependent factors which determine the work relationship in the domestic waste sector. Public policies, legal and technological change, strategy of firms and the present state of labor market help to explain firms behaviors. These behaviors are developed in a same context of objectives and constraints but there is a large place for differences in their implementation. The analysis relies on a qualitative survey made on private firms in the domestic waste sector.

Thèvenot.N, Socio-Économie du Travail n°24 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXVIII), novembre 2004, p.1903-1931.

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For an affirmative economic analysis of discrimination

This article proposes to address the progress of the economic analysis of discrimination, based on the existence of tastes for discrimination or discriminatory beliefs, and its deficiencies thought the Arrow’s approach. Some theoretical extensions, able to explain why discrimination can be a persisting phenomenon, will then be outline. This development will draw up some political applications by justifying affirmative actions.

Ghirardello.A, Socio-Économie du Travail n°24 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXVIII), novembre 2004, p.1877-1902.

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Bargaining in complex organizations : a problem of efficiency

The complexity of work was a subject of many studies for the theorists of value and exploitation. Nowadays, economic analysis focuses on other problems : complex organizations and problems brought by complexity are numerous in industry and services. We discuss here three of them : the organization of production and the question of skills, wages (how to account for the results of the workers ?) and the efficiency of the bargaining process in the case of complex organizations.

Lamotte.B, Socio-Économie du Travail n°24 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXVIII), novembre 2004, p.1845-1875.

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Labour and Skill Management, the Case of a Telecom R&D Center

Human resources management policies and tools structure research and development activities. They strongly influence researchers trajectories in organizations. We study the case of a telecommunication firm and show how human resources management policies and tools can structure its research and development activities, if they are appropriated, and do not stay “dogmatic inventions”, which is a risk in this R&D sector. We study the role of actors or objects in this appropriation.

Combes.M-C, Lozier.F, Socio-Économie du Travail n°25 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXIX), avril 2005, p.803-825.

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The Professionalization of New IT Occupations: The Case of France Telecom’s Intranet Webmasters

The developments of Information and Communication Technology are coupled with competencies that are transforming and occupations which are being redefined. The intranet webmasters’ case is symptomatic of such a phenomenon. This paper studies how, along with the evolution of technology, the webmaster population emerges and attempts to professionalize itself. This article is based on a monographic research regarding an industrial firm and on a comparison between the structures of the webmaster profession in France and the USA.

Benghozi.P-J, Bureau.S, Socio-Économie du Travail n°25 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXIX), avril 2005, p.775-802.

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Homogenisation through Norms and Differentiated Logic Actions: The Oranges Production in Argentina and Uruguay

The paper deals with citrus fruit’s production in the region of Cuenca de la Plata situated in the border between Uruguay and Argentina. Since the beginning of 90s, there has been an important evolution of competition’s context for firms in this region in particular because of the increasing role of European mass marketing, main customer and outlet for agricultural production. The pressure on prices, on competition, the requirements on consistency of quality and quantity are the same in Argentina and Uruguay and should tend to homogenise territories. We observe on contrary the permanence of different sub-systems and resistance to elimination of borders.

Mercier.D, Tanguy.C, Socio-Économie du Travail n°25 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXIX), avril 2005, p.751-774.

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Cognitive Work and Knowledge Management in Conception Activities

The article analyses management knowledge policies of the firms. In this purpose, the concept of “cognitive work” has been developed to make explicit knowledge process within conception activities. An analysis about “cognitive tools” belonging to these policies is developed too. On this base, management knowledge policies are considered with a double meaning: as an intervention policy on the way of thinking and understanding; as a management policy of “action areas”.

Dieuaide.P, Socio-Économie du Travail n°25 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXIX), avril 2005, p.699-723.

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Understanding the Dynamics of Social and Labour Market Policies Models in Europe: The Contribution of Douglass North

Analysing social and labour market policies in Europe is a complex matter: on the one hand, these policies follow divergent and path dependent trajectories; on the other hand, some innovating reforms have taken place. This paper applies a neo-institutionalist framework to the analysis of social and labour market policies dynamics. It focuses more precisely on path dependence theory (as developed in North, 1990), its mechanisms and main conclusions. Then it deals with some more general questions about institutional change theory. From an empirical point of view, this framework helps to get insights about national reforms in the 1990s, and about the new employment strategies coordination process which was launched at the Luxembourg summit (open method of coordination).

Erhel.C, Palier.B, Socio-Économie du Travail n°26 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXIX), août 2005, p.1531-1556.

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