During the last 20 years the management of employment has been transformed, in particular by the development of indirect employment relations. These new relations have both a conceptual and practical interest, in that they are not subject to the traditional direct relationship between employer and employee. Integrating an intermediary into this relationship has the effect of making relations more disperse, as different actors become responsible for various elements of the employment relationship. This article focuses on those forms of employment organised by temporary agencies, internal contractors and groups of employers, with the aim of identifying the principal factors that structure the use of indirect employees. The process is heuristic and is intended to provide some insights into interpreting current practices.
– Wauquier.V, Larré.F, Socio-Économie du Travail n°22 (Économies et Sociétés, tome XXXVI), août 2002, p.1297-1314.